CITES CONVENTION: USA FISH AND WILDLIFE Russia freely allows the hunting of musk deer within the boundaries of their territory, specifically in Siberia where the Siberian musk deer lives. The Siberian musk deer is not in danger of extinction. Musk grains from Siberia are therefore a legal product because they come from legal hunting and from a species listed on Appendix II of the convention, i.e., not threatened with extinction, trade and hunting allowed under the correct licensing systems, etc. Deer hunting in Siberia is tightly controlled, with hunters applying for licenses in a seasonal lottery that determines what number of deer they can kill. Sometimes they can kill only 5 deer a season; sometimes 20. This helps the government keep an eye on overall numbers of the deer population and ensure that they are kept steady. The legal status of the musk depends on the legal status of the source. So, if your musk comes from a species that’s not in danger of extinction and a country has legalized the hunting and killing of the musk deer, or that has musk farms, then the musk is perfectly legal. From a practical standpoint, if you, as a perfumer, doctor or consumer, have the right permits and licenses to import deer musk from a legal source of a deer species not listed on Appendix I of the convention, i.e., a deer speciesnot threatened with extinction, then it is a legal product and you are importing it legally. Your customers can also buy it from you legally, either in perfume or medicinal form. CITES convention: USA Fish and Wildlife Appendix-II and -III specimens may be imported and exported without CITES documents, provided theforeign country does not require a CITES permits. Siberian Deer Musk is Appendix II Appendix I includes species threat- ened with extinction and provides the greatest level of protection, includ- ing restrictions on commercial trade. Examples include gorillas, sea turtles, most lady slipper orchids, and giant pandas. Appendix II includes species that, al- though currently not threatened with extinction, may become so without trade controls. It also includes species that resemble other listed species and need to be regulated in order to effec- tively control the trade in those other listed species. Most CITES species are listed in this appendix, including American ginseng, paddlefish, lions, American alligators or mahogany. Appendix III includes species for which a range country has asked other Parties to help in controlling international trade. Examples include the walrus and alligator snapping turtle.